Harappa Diagram

Harappa is an ancient city that was part of the Indus Valley Civilisation, one of the oldest and most advanced civilisations in the world. Harappa was located in what is now Punjab, Pakistan, near the Ravi River. It was a large and prosperous city, with a population of about 23,500 people, a sophisticated urban planning, and a rich culture. Here is a brief overview of Harappa in about 1000 words:

Harappa was founded around 2500 BCE, during the Early Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation. It was one of the first cities to emerge in South Asia, along with Mohenjo-daro, another major city of the civilisation. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro shared many similarities in their architecture, layout, and culture, suggesting a high degree of coordination and integration among the Indus cities. Harappa was also connected to other regions through trade and cultural exchange, such as Mesopotamia, Central Asia, and the Persian Gulf.

Harappa reached its peak of development and influence during the Mature Harappan phase, from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. During this period, Harappa expanded to cover an area of about 150 hectares (370 acres), making it one of the largest cities in the ancient world. Harappa had a well-planned urban design, with a grid-like pattern of streets, a fortified citadel, and a lower town. The citadel was the administrative and religious centre of the city, where the elites and the priests lived and worked. The lower town was the residential and commercial area, where the common people lived in brick houses with flat roofs, courtyards, and drainage systems. Harappa also had public buildings and facilities, such as granaries, warehouses, workshops, baths, and wells.

Harappa had a complex and diverse culture, with a distinctive writing system, art, religion, and technology. The Harappan script, which has not been deciphered yet, was used to write on seals, tablets, pottery, and other objects. The Harappan art, which was mainly made of terracotta, stone, metal, and shell, depicted animals, plants, humans, and geometric patterns. The Harappan religion, which was polytheistic and animistic, involved the worship of various gods and goddesses, as well as natural forces and elements. The Harappan technology, which was advanced for its time, included metallurgy, pottery, textiles, weights and measures, and sanitation.

Harappa declined and collapsed around 1900 BCE, during the Late Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The reasons for the decline and collapse are not clear, but some possible factors are environmental changes,

Harappa Diagram image

Harappa Diagram